The M2 factor is used in the manner as follows to
develop actual beam radius and focus spot size
Actual Beam Radius
The Gaussian beam propagation formula used to
calculate beam radius at any location is (in air or
…only with circularly symmetric and near Gaussian beams.
Beam Profiler M² Measurement
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10 Tips For Selecting a Beam Diagnostics System
"Knowing these things about laser beam diagnostics will help you make a better…
…a top-hat beam in the short axis (~0.5
mm) and the long axis (155 mm). This ensures that all of the process area is exposed to the
same optimum fluence. UVblade systems avoid the energy overshoot or unwanted heat load
that is typical for processing with Gaussian beams.
Since, in mathematical terms, the intensity of a
Gaussian beam never drops completely to zero, it
is standard to define the beam radius as the distance from the beam center to the 1/e2 point.
See EDU.Photonics.com for this and other
…applications such as the work described here because of the beam quality and
stability that can be achieved with a stable regenerative amplifier cavity (versus a multipass
amplifier, for example). A symmetric Gaussian beam and stable beam pointing are needed to
enable tight focusing…
…runs and provides
several ISO-standard calculations such as
D4sigma beam diameter, Gaussian beam,
and beam-divergence measurements; it
also provides rich, simultaneous 1D, 2D,
and 3D beam profiles," says McCauley.
While CCD and CMOS cameras are
…This clearly demonstrates the improvement in cut quality with
In addition to these factors, a laser must produce a high quality, Gaussian beam, which is usually
focused down to a spot size of 10 - 20 µm at the workpiece in order to yield a sharp and clean
…beam (either as a raw or modified beam) is aimed into a
7 mm aperture located some distance away from the laser. The
sensor positioned just behind the aperture records the highest output
power level of the laser beam--see Table 1-1 (p. 1-4) for details.
With conventional Gaussian…
Structured Light Flat Top Projector
Gaussian to Flat-Top Using Refractive Beam Shaping Optics
Flat Top Options Coherent has been very successful in promoting its flat top for flow cytometry applications. Our standard flow
cytometry option is available with the following…
…in the form of a M2 value for beam quality (M2 = 1 for a perfectly Gaussian beam profile), a beam divergence value, and a beam asymmetry specification. The far-field is a somewhat arbitrary term meaning a distance along the beam that is many times greater than the beam waist Raleigh range. Moreover,…
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Lasiris Flat Top Projector
Gaussian to Flat Top Using Refractive Beam Shaping Optics
Output Flat Top
Coherent has been very successful…
…other UV laser technologies, such as the
diode-pumped solid-state laser. They typically deliver
much lower pulse energies and have a Gaussian beam
profile that is harder to transform into a uniform and
rectangular flat-top profile.
Example calculations carried out for 200 mm…
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